African American Rhinoplasty

African American Rhinoplasty

Jason S. Hamilton, M.D., F.A.C.S.

AFRICAN AMERICAN RHINOPLASTY SURGEON
FACIAL PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
Director – Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Osborne Head & Neck Institute, Los Angeles, California
Board Certified-American Board of Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
Board Certified-American Board of Otolaryngology/ Head & Neck Surgery
Fellow-American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Fellow-American College of Surgeons

MEET DR. HAMILTON

Jason S. Hamilton, M.D. is the Director of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for the Osborne Head and Neck Institute.  Dr. Hamilton has advanced expertise in plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgical techniques involving the nose, face, and neck, and restricts his practice to the treatment of these areas exclusively. Dr. Hamilton has a particular interest in African American rhinoplasty and is sought after internationally for his expertise.

Jason S. Hamilton, M.D. is the Director of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for the Osborne Head and Neck Institute based at Cedar-Sinai Medical Towers, Beverly Hills, California.  Dr. Hamilton began his love of medicine at Duke University, and completed his formal training with a prestigious fellowship in facial plastics and reconstructive surgery awarded through the American Academy of Facial Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery. This one-on-one training, under internationally renowned Master Plastic Surgeons, constitutes the finest training in Plastic Surgery in the world.

Dr. Hamilton is a board certified diplomate of the American Board of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and the American Board of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery and a Fellow of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. In addition to his extensive practice experience, Dr. Hamilton has also held numerous teaching appointments, for which he has been recognized for excellence in teaching. He serves as an Attending Surgeon and Clinical Faculty member in the Department of Surgery at Cedars Sinai Medical Center, where he teaches facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. He has lectured internationally and published over 54 peer-reviewed scientific articles and books chapters.

As a result of his extensive and focused training in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, and head and neck surgery, Dr. Hamilton is able to offer the full spectrum of state of the art surgical and non-surgical procedures to his patients. His expertise draws a diverse group of patients from all over the world, including prominent individuals from the business sector, fashion and entertainment industries, and physicians.

PATIENT AWARDS/HONORS

Patient Choice Award 2012*

Patient Choice Award 2009

Patient Choice Award 2008

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2012**

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2011

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2010

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2008

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2007

Consumer Research Council’s Guide to America’s Top Physicians 2005

Read description of the patient choice award from patientchoiceaward.org.

“Patients’ Choice recognition reflects the difference doctors make in the lives of their patients. The honor is bestowed on physicians and dentists who have received near perfect scores, as voted by their patients.

Every month, more than 200,000 patients across the U.S. provide online feedback about their experiences with their physicians and dentists. They provide overall opinions and rate various components of care, such as bedside manner, doctor-patient face time, degree of follow-up, and courtesy of office staff. While doctors generally receive positive reviews from their patients, only a select few receive uniformly rave reviews worthy of a Patients’ Choice acknowledgement. In fact, of the nation’s 830,000 active doctors, only 5% were accorded this honor by their patients in 2012. PatientsChoice.org is a resource for patients looking for quality care. Updated annually, the site only features physicians and dentists who’ve been named Patients’ Choice winners. To qualify as a Patients’ Choice recipient, a physician or dentist must have: An active medical or dental license. Consistently high patient ratings provided during the year of the award. No sanctions”

Read description of the America’s Top Physicians award from consumersresearchcncl.org

“Consumers’ Research Council of America, a Washington, D.C. based research organization, provides consumers’ information guides for professional services throughout America. It is our purpose to help educate and assist consumers in obtaining the finest professional services. Our guides are easy to read and contain a wealth of information and tips for the consumer. We do not accept fees, donations, sponsorships or advertising from any individuals, professionals, corporations or associations. This policy was enacted to ensure an unbiased selection for the lists of America’s Best.”

PRACTICE PHILOSOPHY – RHINOPLASTY

“There are many technically excellent surgeons who perform rhinoplasty in the US and achieve great results for their respective patients. There are many more however who are just average.  Unfortunately, its not hard to find someone who will tell every patient yes to everything they want to hear and yes to performing whatever procedures they want.  And the truth is if you tell a patient no because in your opinion it’s a bad medical decision and that long term they will be unhappy many will simply keep looking until they find someone who says yes.  And they won’t have to look far.

Many cosmetic surgeons are simply selling a procedure, and they are not assessing whether or not each patient on an individual basis are good candidates for a given procedure and that in the end they will achieve an excellent result for that particular patient. I pride myself on being a physician only. I’m not in the business of sales.  If you are one of these patients then this office is not for you.  I turn away approximately twenty percent of the patients I consult with, either because what there asking for is not medically in their best interest, they have unrealistic expectations, or are asking for procedures that will be unflattering in my eyes. My only focus is to give patients an honest medical assessment about their desired needs. Sometimes that involves a procedure and sometimes is doesn’t.  I am only concerned that 20 years down the line a patient looks back and says, “You know what, that Dr. Hamilton, did right by me.”

-Dr. Hamilton

APPROACH TO SURGERY

What is Dr. Hamilton’s surgical philosophy?

Dr. Hamilton has prioritized the mastery of African American rhinoplasty in his practice and focuses on creating a beautiful nose that will always look natural throughout your entire life.

He accomplishes this by following four major principles:

  • Blending your nose with your face

Dr. Hamilton’s philosophy is that the nose should be hardly noticeable.  An aesthetic nose is one that allows your other features to be accentuated.  Too often, the nose is shaped to look a certain way and that results in a “done” appearance, the trademark of a poor cosmetic result.

  • Your nose should reflect your ethnicity

Your ethnic background is part of your identity.  Your nose should fit in with the ideals of your culture.  The inexperienced rhinoplasty surgeon relies on using the same maneuvers for all patients to ensure a consistent result, but this robs the patient of their individual identity.  Dr. Hamilton is well-traveled and well-read in the ethnic norms of global cultures.  He uses this unique perspective to refine your ethnicity, while taking care to preserve it.

  • Your nose should be your nose, not a models

Dr. Hamilton individualizes his approach based on the patient and their needs and desires.  Unlike other surgeons, who use the same approach on every patient to cut down on operative time, he takes the time to make sure he meets your goals.

  • Your nose should last as long as you do

Dr. Hamilton has extensively studied the long-term results of rhinoplasty, both on his own patients as well as the revision rhinoplasties he is often asked to perform. This gives him an extremely unique persepective.  He understands what makes your result last and what makes other surgeons’ results change with time.

What makes Dr. Hamilton experience unique?

Dr. Hamilton has developed his own techniques that have made a paradigm shift in his approach to the African American nose.  Dr. Hamilton is a gifted surgeon who has devoted his time to perfecting his craft, always seeking further opportunities to learn and refine.  He does not believe in “good enough,” thus setting him apart from his peers.  He has an analytical and studied eye that enables him to assess and determine the necessary steps to improve the cosmetic appearance of each patient individually.

Dr. Hamilton has learned that the most important aspect in achieving excellent rhinoplasty results is in taking his time with patients. A thoughtful consultation, mutual trust and a truly informed, educated patient, results in the best outcomes.

Intraoperatively, Dr. Hamilton ensures he takes time to observe his results and will spend extra time to finesse every element of the nose.  He recognizes that this extra time will always improve the outcome, which improves patient satisfaction.

Patients can be confident in their decision to trust Dr. Hamilton.  He takes a careful and studied approach with his patients to ensure an individualized, fitting, and cosmetically appealing result.

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Board Certified – American Board Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Dr. Hamilton is double board-certified by the American Board of Facial Plastic Surgery ABFPRS and the American Board of Otolaryngology/ Head & Neck Surgery.

  • What does it mean that Dr. Hamilton  is certified by the ABFPRS?
    The ABFPRS certification places Dr. Hamilton in an elite group of approximately 800 surgeons worldwide how have  to achieved  this status :

It means that Dr. Hamilton  has; 1) Has completed an approved residency in a  surgical specialty that includes identifiable training in all aspects of facial plastic surgery (otolaryngology/head-and-neck surgery) 2) Is double boarded, having earned prior certification in otolaryngology/ head-and-neck surgery, a specialty field  recognized through the American Board of Medical Specialties. 3) Has successfully completed a rigorous two-day examination, written and oral. 4) Has submitted for peer-review an acceptable record of at least two years’ clinical experience, including operative reports of a minimum 100 facial plastic surgeries. 5) Holds proper licensure and subscribes to the ABFPRS Code of Ethics.

Board Certified – American Board of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery

Dr. Hamilton holds certification from the American Board of Otolaryngology/ Head&Neck Surgery (ABOto).

  • What does it mean to be board certified?
    The ABO credential signifies a surgeons dedication to their profession:

While licensure by the individual states sets the minimum competency requirements to practice medicine, it is not specialty specific. Board certification is a voluntary program in which specialists seek to improve their performance and demonstrate a commitment to their profession. The path for an otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon to become certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology (ABOto) is long and complex. First, an individual must graduate from college and medical school, which normally take eight years. After completing a five-year residency in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery and with the approval of the training Program Director, an individual can apply to take the certification examinations. The ABOto’s examination consists of two parts. An all-day written examination qualifies the individual to sit for the oral examination, which consists of a half-day examination with four examiners involving 16 actual patient scenarios. Only after passing both of these examinations is the individual certified and are referred to as ABOto diplomate.

Fellow-American College of Surgeons

Dr. Hamilton has achieved the status of a Fellow for the American College of Surgeons.

  • What does it mean to be a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons?
    Fellowship in the American College of Surgeons means commitment to patient education and high standards of surgical care.

The American College of Surgeons is a scientific and educational association of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice. Members of the American College of Surgeons are referred to as “Fellows.” The letters FACS (Fellow, American College of Surgeons) after a surgeon’s name mean that the surgeon’s education and training, professional qualifications, surgical competence, and ethical conduct have passed a rigorous evaluation, and have been found to be consistent with the high standards established and demanded by the College.

Fellow – American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Dr. Hamilton continues his commitment to education through the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS).

  • What is unique about the AAFPRS?
    Membership in the AAFPRS signifies a surgeon’s commitment to their profession:

Specialization in medicine has been one of the major enhancements in patient care over the last generation. AAFPRS members not only have a precise focus in patient care but they also have had more comprehensive training in facial surgery than any other medical specialty. The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is the world’s largest specialty association that represents over 2,700 facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons throughout the world. The AAFPRS is a National Medical Specialty Society of the American Medical Association (AMA), and holds an official seat in both the AMA House of Delegates and the American College of Surgeons board of governors. AAFPRS members are board certified surgeons whose focus is surgery of the face, head, and neck. AAFPRS members subscribe to a code of ethics

Fellow – American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery

Dr. Hamilton continues to be involved with the American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery (AAO/HNS)?

  • How does continued involvement with AAOHNS benefit me as a patient with nasal problems?
    The AAO/HNS continues to remain at the forefront of scientific research and cutting edge technology

Well, the apple doesn’t fall too far from the tree.  Dr. Hamilton’s extensive training in all aspects of functional nasal surgery and his 14 experience as a facial trauma surgeon give him unique incite into treating all nasal conditions functional and cosmetic.   The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) is the world’s largest organization representing specialists who treat the ear, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck. The Academy represents more than 12,000 otolaryngologists—head and neck surgeons who diagnose and treat disorders of those areas specifically.  The Academy is committed to improving nasal health for patients all over the world.

ACADEMIC MENTOR

Dr. Hamilton mentors high school students with a keen interest in medicine or the sciences.  The students has and opportunity to enter a clinical setting and observe patients and the practice of medicine with a physician mentor. The students shadow an OHNI surgeon one afternoon a week for six weeks.  The goals are to expose students to patient care that is humanistic, patient-centered, and comprehensive. Students are provided with the opportunity to observe patient evaluation, treatment and where possible, procedures and surgery at our Cedars-Sinai Medical Tower offices. Students attend continuing medical and clinical education seminars presented by OHNI physicians.  All students must have proficiency in all topics to be eligible for the Summer Internship Program offered to outstanding students who successfully complete the mentorship program. This program offers students interested in a career in Medicine and Surgery experience and information as well as Community Service credit.

The Foundation plans to expand the Student Mentorship Program to offer elementary and middle school students’ an introduction to medical careers.  This program will provide these students with age appropriate experiences to help spark an interest in the medical field. The Foundation will continue to develop and enhance its support for community education in the coming years.

TRAUMA SURGEON

Dr. Hamilton serves on the emergency and trauma call panels for Cedars-Sinai and California Hospital Medical Centers both located in Los Angeles, California. He is a member of the craniomaxillofacial surgery and head & neck surgery teams which focus on the surgical management of patients with facial, head and neck trauma. Dr. Hamilton’s skills where highlighted recently on a national level in the management of USC football player Stafon Johnson who suffered a life threatening injury after a 275lb weight bar crushed his neck during a training session.  Dr. Hamilton’s quick actions saved the players life and with partner Dr. Ryan Osborne they both reconstructed his larynx allowing him to make a miraculous return to football field in the NFL.

Read about the incident at LA Times

 

HUMANITARIAN

Face to Face

Dr. Hamilton is a member of severely community service programs that benefit patients who need plastic and reconstructive surgical services on a pro bono basis.  One such program under the umbrella of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery’s humanitarian arm called Face-To-Face, services two distinct programs; The National Domestic Violence Program, which provide pro bono services to battery women who are victims of domestic violence, and Faces of Honor program in supported of our wounded warriors which supports injured troops who may need reconstructive surgical services.  The programs are facilitated through the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) and implemented locally through the division of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery at the Osborne Head and Neck Institute (OHNI) supported by the OHNI Foundation.

The National Domestic Violence Program

The National Domestic Violence Program helps individuals within our local community who have been victims of a physically abusive relationship. Cigarette burns, fractured noses and cheekbones, or facial lacerations, can be painful daily reminders of the unwanted abuse they have suffered.  Due to financial reasons and/or feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem many are not able to seek out and receive the treatment they need.  Even though emotional scars will heal over time with the support of others, the physical ones do not fade on their own. Some live with their scars for the rest of their lives. These individuals, primarily women, are a forgotten segment of society.

AAFPRS was the first surgical group to take a firm stand and become involved in assisting survivors of domestic violence. AAFPRS surgeons offer consultation and surgery pro bono to survivors of this violence thereby enhancing their self-esteem and aiding them in rebuilding their lives and recovery.

Faces of Honor

Faces of Honor provides pro bono surgical services to veterans deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan who have suffered facial or neck injuries. The purpose of the program is to give a small thank you to the brave men and women who have served our country so well.  The Osborne Head and Neck Foundation provides the funds for surgery, transportation and operating room expenses and supplies and Dr. Hamilton has agreed to provide pro bono surgical services for patients who qualify.

As this incredible program grows, we hope more victims of domestic violence and veterans will take full advantage of the pro bono services available to them. The OHNI Foundation and Dr. Hamilton has pledged continued support for treatment and transportation costs for victims of domestic violence and veterans.

SCIENTIST/RESEARCHER/AUTHOR

Dr. Hamilton is a dedicated clinical research scientist and has published extensively in over 80 book chapters and peer-reviewed journal articles and online publications. Many of Dr. Hamilton’s research papers have focused on the diagnosis and management of nasal and sinus disorders, facial plastic surgery, facial trauma, revision nasal surgery, and the reconstruction of head and neck defects after cancer surgery. Dr. Hamilton continues to actively investigate and develop minimally invasive procedures in cosmetic and functional nasal surgery and has been an invited guest speaker at many national and international meeting for facial plastic surgery.

Selected Research and Journal Publications

Avoiding misdiagnosis in venous malformation of the parotid.

Hamilton J, Gupta R.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2012 Aug;91(8):317-8.

 

Intraparotid neurofibromatosis.

Osborne RF, Hamilton JS, Gupta R.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2012 Jun;91(6):236-7. No abstract available.

PMID: 22711389

 

Parotidectomy for treatment of bulimic parotid hypertrophy.

Osborne RF, Hamilton JS, Zandifar H.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2012 Feb;91(2):62-4.

 

Three-dimensional CT-guided custom implant for the repair of facial defects.

Levian M, Zandifar H, Osborne RF, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Aug;89(8):350-2.

 

Paget disease and chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible.

Zandifar H, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF, Walsh RE, Kellman RM.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Apr;89(4):160-1.

 

Subcutaneous carboxytherapy injection for aesthetic improvement of scars.

Nach R, Zandifar H, Gupta R, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Feb;89(2):64-6.

 

Clinical manifestations of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.

Zandifar H, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF, Kellman RM.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Dec;88(12):1252-4.

 

Lymphoma in the Waldeyer ring: a great masquerader.

Osborne RF, Hamilton JS, Avitia S.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Jun;88(6):954-6.

 

Smooth-muscle tumor of the parapharyngeal space.

Avitia S, Hamilton J, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Feb;88(2):771.

 

Metastatic ovarian cancer in the head and neck.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2008 Jun;87(6):318.

 

Recurrent thyroid carcinoma.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2008 Apr;87(4):192, 194.

 

Minimally invasive endoscopic thyroidectomy.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2008 Feb;87(2):72.

 

Retropharyngeal carotid artery.

Avitia S, Hamilton J, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Nov;86(11):665.

 

Deep-lobe parotid tumor presenting in the parapharyngeal space.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Dec;86(12):730-1.

 

Preventing posterior tracheal wall perforation in percutaneous dilational tracheotomy.

Hamilton JS, Avitia S, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Sep;86(9):546, 548.

 

Post-traumatic ethmoid mucocele following penetrating craniofacial injury.

Hamilton JS, Avitia S, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Aug;86(8):452, 454.

 

Surgical rehabilitation for primary laryngeal amyloidosis.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Apr;86(4):206, 208.

 

 

Management of paratracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Mar;86(3):141, 147.

 

Invasive metastatic skin cancer in the background of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Feb;86(2):84-5.

 

Dentigerous cyst presenting as orbital proptosis.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Jan;86(1):23-4.

 

Malignant ethmoid sinus tumor masquerading as chronic ethmoid sinusitis.

Wright BE, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Dec;85(12):814, 816.

 

Repair of orbital floor fractures with SupraFOIL Smooth Nylon Foil.  Majmundar MV, Hamilton JS.

Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2007 Jan-Feb;9(1):64-5.

 

Dorsal nasal flap for nasal reconstruction: the alternate forehead flap.  Wright BE, Osborne RF, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Nov;85(11):710, 713.

 

Outpatient management of infected hardware in the oncology patient.

Osborne RF, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Aug;85(8):490-1.

 

Pediatric submental cavernous lymphangioma.

Smith L, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Jun;85(6):372-3.

 

Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Jul;84(7):406-7.

 

Styloid-carotid artery syndrome.

Avitia S, Hamilton J, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Apr;85(4):228-9.

 

Radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis.

Avitia S, Hamilton J, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Mar;85(3):158.

 

Designing a bipedicled sternocleidomastoid muscle flap for parotidectomy contour deformities.

Hamilton J, Avitia S, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Jan;85(1):20-1.

 

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma.

Avitia S, Hamilton JS, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Dec;84(12):764, 767.

 

Dedifferentiated cervical liposarcoma.

Hamilton J, Avitia S, Osborne R, Brown J.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Nov;84(11):696, 706.

 

Prosthetic rehabilitation of large sinonasal-orbital and palatal defects.

Osborne RF, Avitia S, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Sep;84(9):558-9.

 

Sialadenoma papilliferum involving the nasopharynx.

Hamilton J, Osborne RF, Smith LM.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Aug;84(8):474-5.

 

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint space.

Hamilton JS, Jones-Quaidoo S, Osborne RF.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Jun;84(6):342-3.

 

Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland.

Osborne RF, Purohit MR, Hamilton JS.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 May;84(5):274-5.

 

Cervical schwannoma.

Hamilton J, Osborne R, Avitia S, Xu H.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Apr;84(4):203-4.

 

Human squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and colon undergoes apoptosis upon phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the baker’s yeast, in vitro.

Ghoneum M, Hamilton J, Brown J, Gollapudi S.

Anticancer Res. 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):981-9.

 

A rare case of rapidly progressive craniofacial chondrosarcoma.

Hamilton JS, Osborne RF, Brown JJ.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Jan;84(1):18-20.

 

Radiation-induced sarcoma of the base of the tongue.

Hamilton J, Avitia S, Osborne RF, Brown JJ.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Nov;83(11):741-2.

 

Sequelae of undiagnosed cervical vertebral osteomyelitis in intravenous drug abusers.

Xu HX, Osborne RF, Hamilton J, Brown L.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Sep;83(9):616, 619-20.

 

Bipedicled sternocleidomastoid muscle flap for reconstruction of tail of parotid defects.

Osborne RF, Tan JW, Hamilton JS, Calcaterra TC.

Laryngoscope. 2004 Nov;114 (11):2045-7.

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